Causes of Heart Failure

Heart failure can be caused by various underlying conditions that affect the heart's ability to pump blood effectively. Some common causes include:

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries reduces blood flow to the heart muscle, leading to myocardial damage and heart failure.

Hypertension: Prolonged high blood pressure can strain the heart, causing the heart muscle to thicken and weaken over time, leading to heart failure.

Cardiomyopathy: This refers to diseases that directly affect the heart muscle, leading to impaired heart function. Types include dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy.

Valvular Heart Disease: Malfunctioning heart valves, such as aortic stenosis or mitral regurgitation, can result in increased workload and strain on the heart, potentially leading to heart failure.

Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack): A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a portion of the heart is blocked, leading to the death of heart muscle cells and potentially weakening the heart's pumping ability.

Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms, particularly persistent tachycardia or bradycardia, can disrupt the heart's pumping function and contribute to heart failure.

Congenital Heart Defects: Structural abnormalities present at birth can lead to heart failure, especially if left untreated or not managed adequately.

Other Factors: Other factors contributing to heart failure include diabetes, obesity, kidney disease, and chronic lung diseases.

Understanding the underlying causes of heart failure is critical in developing appropriate management and treatment plans, as different causes may require specific interventions to optimize heart function and improve patient outcomes.

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